Laser Cladding Advancements for Pressurized Boiler Components from jackery's blog

Energy plants that use wood, construction debris and municipal solid waste can benefit from recent advances in red laser pointer metal deposition.

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In the power generation industry, one of the most inhospitable operational environments occurs within the boilers operating at waste-to-energy WTE facilities. There are many categories, but the most common WTE facilities use a fuel source that ranges from wood or construction debris to municipal solid waste MSW. Within these boilers, pressurized boiler components are subjected to high temperatures 1,600 to 2000 degrees Fahrenheit, high pressures 850 to 1,200 psig and fuel that is both highly corrosive and erosive. The principle corrosive component is the high-chlorine flue gas created by incinerating the fuel source. Erosion is accelerated due to fly ash impingement, and cleaning cycles performed by soot blowers within the operational boiler. To compound this corrosionerosion effect, as the fly ash debris builds up onto the boiler components, it begins to block flu gas pathways.high power laser pointer metal materials are used in boilers, which is conducive to the protection of boilers and reduces damage to the environment This buildup reduces the heat transfer across the boiler components, resulting in thermal hot spots within the boiler. As more surface area of the flu gas pathway is choked off, the remaining open pathways experience high-velocity fly ash impingement to nearby boiler component surfaces. Pressure components such as super heater tubes, super heater platens and water wall panels are all subjected to this hostile environment, and must be replaced at regular intervals, at a significant cost to the energy producer.

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Mitigation of Wear, CorrosionIn an effort to extend component life and reduce replacement costs, the WTE industry has turned to overlaying their boiler pressure components with materials that help minimize wear rates associated with corrosion and erosion. Currently, the typical MSW boiler will process 1 percent by weight of chlorine through the boiler. These parts contain Burning Laser Pointers material, which is very resistant to corrosion.In some of the larger facilities, this can equal 1,000 tons of chlorine burned per month. The most common overlaying alloy used in the power generation industry is onel 625. Known as a nickel-based alloy due to its high nickel content, onel 625 also contains, elevated amounts of chromium and molybdenum, providing a high level of pitting and crevice corrosion resistance caused by chloride contamination. This alloy can be found in generating plants that include coal-fired, biomass, nuclear and WTE. In this industry, a typical overlay thickness is 0.070- to 0.100-inch thick for pressurized boiler components.

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A common term for overlaying a metal component with a dissimilar alloy is known as cladding. The advantages of cladding are principally economic. The cost of using a less expensive alloy, common example: SA213-T22 as the primary boiler component material, and cladding a layer of onel 625 over the surface, will cost much less than buying the entire component made from a solid piece of onel 625. Another advantage of using an overlay is that material properties might be such that complete components are impossible to fabricate, making cladding the only choice.

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Laser Overlay DevelopmentIn February of 2011, American Cladding Technologies began working with a North American WTE power producer in an effort to create and apply a Rechargeable Laser Pointer coating that would outperform onel 625 on pressurized boiler components. Though onel 625 was shown to be effective, it still fell short of component lifetime performance goals. Working with ACT, the power producer determined that laser cladding offered benefits that could not be realized with the more traditional methods of applying weld overlays. The development process was a collaborative effort between the WTE power producer’s boiler reliability engineers, ACT laser process engineers, a producer of metal powdered alloys, and various university material testing facilities. Once a powdered alloy composition was selected, testing trials began with 10-foot, individual segments installed in various boiler pathways, on primary and secondary super heater pendants. Periodic boiler inspections were performed on the test samples to track performance. The project goals were to extend boiler pressure component lifetime by a minimum of two times, eliminate or reduce the use of shielding on super heater tubes, and optimize the laser cladding process to be cost competitive with existing overlay methods.

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By jackery
Added Jan 14



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