Causes of Dyslexia

The exact causes of dyslexia are still not fully known, but it is thought to be caused by genetic and neurological factors. Research suggests that dyslexia runs in families and is due to anatomical and functional differences in brain structures that process written language. The most prominent biological theory is that dyslexia is linked to differences in how the brain processes phonological information - the sounds that make up spoken language. The regions in the left hemisphere of the brain that process these sounds may be less efficient or poorly connected in people with dyslexia.

Dyslexia Symptoms

Common symptoms of Dyslexia Treatment in children and adults include difficulty with phonological awareness (recognizing and manipulating sounds in words), spelling, reading rate, and naming letters. Individuals with dyslexia may also experience symptoms like mixing up letter sequences, having problems recalling sight words, and confusing words that look alike (was/saw). Other signs include difficulty maintaining focus on text, losing one's place, and poor reading comprehension. Dyslexia can result in low self-esteem and frustration due to difficulties with reading-based activities.

Screening and Diagnosis

If dyslexia is suspected in a child or adult, screening and evaluation by an educational psychologist, clinical psychologist, neuropsychologist, or other diagnosing professional should be conducted. Formal testing examines things like oral language skills, reading progress, written language ability, family history, and response to evidence-based intervention. Diagnosis is based on assessment results and the person's challenges meeting reading benchmarks for their age and intelligence level despite appropriate teaching methods. Co-occurring conditions like attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are also considered.

Multisensory Structured Literacy Approach

The most widely supported approach to dyslexia treatment is a multisensory structured literacy (MSL) intervention that directly addresses the underlying phonological weaknesses. MSL uses an intensive, multisensory (sight, hearing, touch, movement) approach to teach reading, spelling, and writing through sequential, logical steps. Sounds and symbols are directly linked together through simultaneous visual, auditory, and kinesthetic-tactile association. Letter shapes, sounds, and gestures are taught in a systematic, cumulative fashion to strengthen memory and automatic recall. Examples of evidence-based MSL programs include Orton-Gillingham, Wilson Reading System, and Barton Reading & Spelling System

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